Installation of sediment traps under the sea ice. Photo: Peter Leopold, Norwegian Polar Institute

Rationale: The importance of ice-related ecosystems is significant. Ice algae is the prime food source for the majority of the ice fauna, thus fuelling the ice-related part of the ecosystem, and the significance increases further north due to lower pelagic production. The sympagic–pelagic–benthic coupling is of great importance in the Arctic. Reduced sea ice, especially a shift towards less multiyear sea ice, will affect species composition as well as biomass and production