In Northwest Russia there is a high concentration of potential sources of radioactive contamination to the environment. This includes both military and civil nuclear fleets, storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, legacy sites with dumped radioactive material, utilization of nuclear-powered submarines and nuclear power plants. Radionuclides originating from the global fallout caused by the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests run from 1945 to –1995 may still be detected in the area.