The oil companies in Norway and in Russia are required to have an oil spill preparedness plan that is intended to limit the consequences of any accident to the maximum degree possible. On the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the oil companies have established an alliance - NOFO (the Norwegian Clean Seas Association for Operating Companies) - which handles the oil spill preparedness. NOFO has divided the coastline into five regions with depots, equipment and emergency response plans for each area.
The emergency response encompasses sea-going oil spill vessels, towing vessels, oil booms and oil skimmers that can pump oil up from the sea. Preparedness cooperation between local Norwegian authorities is ensured through 34 so called IUAs, which are inter-municipal bodies covering the whole country.
In Russia, large terminal and transport operators, like Lukoil and Sovcomflot, establish their own oil spill preparedness units for large projects.
It is also the duty of local authorities to maintain preparedness and take action in the event of minor instances of acute pollution within their local borders when this is not covered by private preparedness, and in instances where polluter is not able to take action or is unknown.