These themes can be listed here:
- Risk of accidental discharges from oil and gas activities and ship transport (chapters Issues of importance for ecosystem based management - Oil and gas activities and Issues of importance for ecosystem based management - Maritime transport)
- Risk of introduction of alien species from ship traffic (chapter Issues of importance for ecosystem based management - Maritime transport)
No large oil spills have so far occurred from ship transport or oil and gas activities in the Barents Sea. With increasing activities, risk of accidental discharges will increase unless considerable mitigation measures are put in place. As described in chapter General background description of the ecosystem - Ecosystem interactions - Human impact, oil spills may have serious impacts on seabirds, marine mammals and other groups, such as fish eggs and larvae.
Alien species may have considerable impact on ecosystems and is considered one of the most serious threats to marine biodiversity. Alien species may be introduced by ship traffic through discharges of ballast water or from organisms growing on ship hulls. With increasing ship traffic in the area, the risk of introductions may increase. International agreements on ballast water exchange and treatment are expected to mitigate this. However, similar measures do not exist to prevent introductions of species attached on ship hulls, and the risk of such introductions is therefore expected to increase.